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Compressed Air Systems Training

We at mdi know how difficult it can be to navigate the process of purchasing or modifying a compressed air system. We learn everything we can about our products not just to better understand them ourselves, but to help our customers arrive at the best system solutions for their applications and constraints.

mdiAcademy is our mission to educate and empower our customers to make the best decisions possible and get the most out of our products.

Use the tabs below to select which section and subsection you would like to learn more about, and use the links to navigate to that part of the page. At the bottom of each subsection is a Back to Top link that will return you to this menu.



Compressed Air 101

Laws of Compressed Air


Basic Law

One of the most significant gas laws, Marriott and Gay-Lussac law, states:

PV = aT, with:

P : aboslute pressure (Pa)
V : volume (ft3 m3)
T : absolute temperature (K)
a : constant

This relation is used within the compressor: constant air volume is pumped from the compressor chamber, and the volume decreases. This decrease causes an increase in both pressure and the temperature of the air.


Air Flow Calculation

Flow is equivalent to the quantity of compressed air conveyed in a given section per unit of time:

Q = A1V1 = A2V2, with:

Q : flow (cfm)
A : flow section (ft2)
V : speed (ft/min)

The international system of flow is cubic meters / second (m3/s), but we generally use l/s, m3/h or cfm. This varies according to several factors and, in particular, to the air pressure and length/ID of the pipe which conveys compressed air.


Pressure Drop Calculation

When compressed air flows in a straight pipe, the flow can depend on two factors: the laminar rate or the rate of turbulence, according to the value of the Reynolds Number "R."


Compressed Air in the System is Determined by the Rate of Turbulence

Pressure drop in a compressed air system is a critical factor. Pressure drop is caused by friction of the compressed air flowing against the inside of the pipe, through valves, tees, elbows and other components that make up a complete compressed air piping system. Pressure drop can be affected by pipe size, type of pipes used, the number and type of valves, couplings, and bends in the system.

Turbulence caused by friction reduces the volume of compressed air conveyed through the pipe. Furthermore, the surfaces of the internal pipe walls become irregular.

These factors, combined with flow, create pressure drop - resulting from friction caused by the dynamics of airflow within the pipe. Pressure drop values are shown as dP and stated in psi or bar.


Flow Rate Performance for a Defined Pressure Drop

Values for one meter air pipe system:

To convert Nm3/h to cfm, please use the coefficient of 0.588.
To convert cfm to Nm3/h, please use the coefficient of 1.7.

Nomogram with values in cfm and psi/ft

Example: Diameter 25mm, flow 100 Nm3/h
Pressure: 8 bar D p/m = 0.003
Hence, for a 30m air pipe system
D p = 0.003 x 30 = 0.09 bar

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Compressed Air 101

Practical Air Guide


Pressure

Pressure is the balance of power on a defined surface area. Pascal (Pa) represents the pressure unit of the International System of Units (SI), but in industrial practice, pressure is represented in pounds per square inch (psi).

1 bar = 105 Pa = 14.5 psi
1 Pascal = 1 Newton / 1 m2
1 psi = 1 pound / 1 in2

Normal atmospheric air pressure is stated as 14.7 psi at sea level. Generally used as a reference for pressure measurement, it is, however, variable according to altitude. For tests and measurements, it is advisable to use absolute psi or bar corresponding to absolute pressure.

Pabs = Patm + Prel
Pabs : absolute pressure
Prel : relative gauge pressure
Patm : normal atmospheric pressure


Temperature

The International System of Units (SI) unit of temperature is Kelvin (K).
The following formula establishes the connection between Kelvin, degree Celcius (°C), and degree Farenheit (°F), the units more commonly used:

T = t + 273.15
t + (tf-32) x 5/9

T : absolute temperature (K)
t : temperature (°C)
tf : temperature (°F)


Relative Humidity

The percentage of relative humidity is the relation between:

  • the quantity of water vapor present in a volume of air
  • the quantity of water corresponding to the saturation of this same volume of air (saturation causing condensation of excess water vapor)

The maximum quantity of water which can be absorbed in a volume of air increases with temperature.

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Compressed Air 101

Compressed Air Production


Industrial Energy

Compressed air as the second source of industrial energy, after electricity, requires a close understanding of the characteristics of compressed air to optimize its production and use.

Optimizing productivity while reducing operating costs is the common goal shared by nearly every manufacturing plant. Compressed air is considered the phantom utility: unlike water and electricity which can be bought from utility companies, you must manufacture your own compressed air. The initial capital cost of a compressed air system is minor compared to the operational cost. A Transair aluminum pipe system will significantly reduce your operational cost. Transair can help make your goals of reduced electrical costs a reality.

Pie chart showing the percentage cost breakdown of an average compressed air system over a 10 year period: 10 percent investment, 15 percent maintenance, and 75 percent energy.

The pie chart above illustrates the typical cost breakdown for an average compressed air system (compressor, pipe system and operating costs) over a 10-year period.


Compressed Air Production

Compressed air can be produced by two processes:

  • Dynamic compression (conversion of the air velocity into pressure): radial and axial compressors.
  • Displacement compression (reduction of the air volume): reciprocating compressores (piston type) and rotary compressors (screw, vane, roots or liquid ring compressors).

The compressed air production includes necessary elements of compressed air treatment.

Diagram showing a typical air compression system and its necessary treatment components.

The Air Receiver

Diagram showing an air receiver within a typical air compression system.

The air receiver enables:

  • storage of compressed air in order to meet heavy demands in excess of the capacity of the compressor.
  • balancing of pulsations from the compressor.
  • cooling of the compressed air and collection of residual condensate.

The Air Dryer

Diagram showing an air dryer within a typical air compression system.

The air dryer reduces the water vapor content of compressed air. Moisture can cause equipment manlfunction, product spoilage and corrosion. Air dryers use two methods: absorption and refrigeration.


Filters

Diagram showing a pair of filters within a typical air compression system.

Filters restrict the passage of oil and water particles conveyed by compressed air within the system.


Condensate Drains

Diagram showing a network of condensate drains within a typical air compression system.

Drains eliminate condensate (condensate water mixed with other impurities generated by compressed air and sources of pollution).


The Separator

Diagram showing a separator within a typical air compression system.

The separator receives condensate from the drains. It separates oil and water, avoiding any polluting discharge.

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Compressed Air 101

Compressed Air Pipe Systems


Purpose of a Compressed Air Pipe System

The purpose of the compressed air piping system is to deliver compressed air to the points of usage. The compressed air needs to be delivered with the appropriate volume, quality, and pressure to properly power the components that use the compressed air.

Compressed air is utilized in many commercial industrial facilities and is considered a utility essential to production. However, compressed air is costly to manufacture. A poorly designed compressed air system can increase energy costs, promote equipment failure, reduce production efficiencies, and increase maintenance requirements. Due to the amount of energy often wasted by compressed air piping infrastructure, investments in the improvement of a system have a strong potential to pay for themselves many times over the system's lifespan. Transair's aluminum compressed air pipe system provides airtight fittings with full bore flow, creating a more energy efficient system.

Transair compressed air pipe systems are quick to install and ready for immediate pressurization. Components are removable and interchangeable and allow immediate and easy layout modifications, reducing production downtime. Unlike the performance of steel pipe, which degrades over time due to corrosion, air quality is clean with optimum flow rate performance with the use of a Transair pipe system.

Thanks to its large choice of sizes is Ø 6", Ø 4", Ø 3", Ø 2-1/2", Ø 2", Ø 1-1/2", Ø 1" and Ø 1/2" and an extensive range of accessories, the Transair system meets the requirements of numerous industrial and garage workshop installations. With simple installation, energy savings, and layout flexibility, Transair aluminum pipe compressed air solutions have a clear advantage over steel, copper, or PVC piping systems.


History of a Compressed Air Pipe System

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Pipe System Pros Cons
Steel
(black or galvanized)
Traditional usage Threaded or welded
Installation by experienced fitters
Increased build-up of rust and corrosion
Glued Plastic
(ABS, Polyethylene PE or PVC)
Clean air
Light weight
Good internal quality
Glued/cold welded
Installation by experienced fitters
High dilation
Not compatible with all compressor oils
Fragile/easily ruptured by impacts
Stainless Steel
(pressed or welded)
Clean air
Low dilation
Good internal quality
Heavy weight
Installation by experienced fitters
Aluminum
(quick connection technologies)
Clean air
Light weight
Low dilation
Good internal quality
Versatility, extensibility
Simple assembly
Quick modification
Lateral dismantling
Reusable components
 

Example of a Compressed Air Pipe System

Picture showing an example of a compressed air system using Transair aluminum pipe, fittings, and accessories.

Your entire compressed air system can be constructed using Transair aluminum pipe, fittings, and accessories.


Controlling the Operating Cost

Pressure Drop Costs: To compensate for pressure drops, the compressor must work harder, which means more energy consumption and additional costs.

Technologies offering smooth bore pipe work (aluminum, plastic) provide a high reduction in pressure drop - and, therefore, operating costs. Conversely, galvanized steel systems, affected by rust and pitted interior surfaces after several years of use, cause higher operating costs.

Annual costs: In terms of overall performance versus costs, the choice should not only depend on technology and purchasing price. The exact cost of a system also includes annual operating costs (such as installation and commissioning of a system).

Graph showing the costs caused by pressure drops in a compressed air system over a 10 year period.

Cost of Pressure Drops over a 10-Year Period

Graph comparing the annual operating, commissioning, and installation costs of compressed air pipe systems utilizing different pipe materials.

Annual Costs of Different Material Pipe Systems


Guidelines for Optimizing an Air Pipe System

The installation of an air pipe system should be completed in accordance with certain guidelines. Below are various recommendations to be observed in order to obtain the expected performance, reliability and security of your air pipe system.

  • Bends and bypasses involve pressure drops. To avoid them, use assemblies: they allow modification of a system and the bypass of obstacles.
Diagram showing a pair of Transair U-channel mounting brackets supporting a pipe away from the wall on either side of a vertical beam, avoiding the obstacle.
  • Limit excessive reductions in pipe diameters, which also involve pressure drops.
  • Threaded components create ever increasing leaks over time. Choose materials that do not corrode.
  • Ensure consistent quality clean air.
Diagram showing a receiver tank connected to an air filter and a refrigerated air dryer, both of which are recommended to ensure quality, clean air in your compressed air system.
  • The size of a system has direct influence on the good performance of tools. Choose the appropriate diameter according to the required flow rate and acceptable pressure drop.
  • To facilitate access for maintenance, do not position a system underground.
  • Install drops as close as possible to areas of operation, therefore where tools require maximum energy for optimal functionality.
Diagram showing a drop point as close as possible to a work bench, providing maximum power to the pneumatic tool being used.
  • Install pipe supports as follows: two supports per 10' (3m) pipe length and three supports per 20' (6m) pipe length.
Diagram showing a support beam to which two Transair rigid pipe fixing clips are attached by specialized mounting brackets, supporting a length of Transair aluminum pipe.

Fast and Safe Opening or Closing of a Compressed Air System

In order to ensure the safety of workplace operators, overhead tasks are subjected to various regulations that may require the use of special equipment. Since it is operated from the workshop floor, the remote shut-off valve guarantees:

  • Personnel safety by avoiding the risk of climbing to access.
  • Quick operation with no need for ladders, scaffolds or lifting equipment.
Diagram showing a drop point beside a Transair 1-1/2 inch (40 milimeter) remote shut-off valve.
Diagram showing the Transair remote shut-off valve in its open and closed states.

The Problem of Condensation

The temperature variance between the outside air and the air within the pipe system will create a drop in the temperature of the pipe network air and cause condensation of water vapor present in the system.

Condensate matter adversely affects pneumatic applications. Therefore, if we want to prevent breakdowns, we must ensure that it does not reach the work station.

Equipping compressed air pipe systems with brackets that incorporate an upward loop is essential - even when a dryer is used. Dryers remove only a proportion of the water that is present in compressed air since condensation continues to occur due to variations in temperature levels.

Furthermore, such brackets increase the safety and protection of pneumatic tools and equipment should the dryer break down or malfunction. For example, 11 liters (2.9 gallons) of water per hour can be produced by a compressor generating 294 cfm at 20°C (68°F).

To create this upward loop takes time and many fittings must be used, thus increasing the risk of leakage. A modern and faster solution is to use a bracket with an integrated upward loop.

Diagram showing the flow of condensate in a pipe system without an upward loop.

Without an upward loop, condensate will enter drop points and damage equipment.

Photo of a traditional upward loop configuration using many fittings, thus increasing the chance of leaks.

A traditional upward loop uses many fittings, each one increasing the chance of leaks in your system.

Diagram showing the flow of air out of Transair quick assembly brackets with integrated upward loops.

Whether your drop point branches sideways or downward from the supply line, Transair quick connect brackets with integrated upward loops will keep your equipment condensate-free.

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Features and Benefits

Innovative Technology


Pipe Challenge! Transair vs Copper vs Carbon Steel


Innovative Piping Technology

Transair's Aluminum Compressed Air Pipe System is quick to install and easy to modify. Transair components are removable and interchangeable, which allows immediate and easy layout modifications.

Available in 1/2" to 6" pipe sizes, the Parker Transair system features push-to-connect technology that secures connections with a simple push and provides a leak-free guarantee. The aluminum pipe eliminates corrosion, ensuring the longevity of equipment and helps to avoid frequent changes of filtration elements. Transair can also be integrated into existing copper and steel piping without compromising performance, making it perfect for upgrades or expansion projects.


Pipe-to-pipe and stud connectors in Ø 16.5, Ø 25 and Ø 40 can be immediately connected to Transair pipe; simply push the pipe into the connector up to the connection mark. The gripping ring of each fitting is then automatically secured and the connection is safe.

Diagram showing the components of Transair push-to-connect fittings for 1/2 inch (16.5 milimeter), 1 inch (25 milimeter), and 1-1/2 inch (40 milimeter) pipe.

Pipe-to-pipe and stud connectors in Ø 50 and Ø 63 can be quickly connected to Transair aluminum pipe by means of a SnapRing. This secures the connection between the nut and the pipe; tightening of the nuts secures the final assembly.

Diagram showing the components of Transair SnapRing fittings for 2 inch (50 milimeter) and 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) pipe.

Pipe-to-pipe and stud connectors in Ø 76, Ø 100 and Ø 168 can be quickly connected to Transair aluminum pipe. Position the pipes to be connected within the Transair cartridge and close/tighten the Transair clamp.

Diagram showing the components of Transair cartridge and clamp fittings for 3 inch (76 milimeter), 4 inch (100 milimeter), and 6 inch (168 milimeter) pipe.

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Features and Benefits

Energy Efficiency


Energy Efficient Optimum Flow Rate Piping

Compressed air represents one of the largest opportunities for immediate energy savings, which is on average 15% of any industrial facility's consumption of electricity. If the pipe system itself is not designed for compressed air, there is a good chance that much of the costs associated with commissioning the system and producing compressed air are wasteful and unnecessary.

Optimizing and controlling the production of compressed air is an opportunity to make immediate energy savings.

Over a ten-year period, the cost of energy consumed by an average compressed air system exceeds other costs, including the initial cost of equipment and installation.

The potential savings (payback time of less than 36 months) can be summarized in three main categories in terms of potential contribution.

Reducing air leaks is the greater potential to improve the efficiency of a network, but improving a pipework system also gives potential cost savings of 34%.

Parker's Transair aluminum pipe system significantly reduces plant energy costs by increasing efficiency, reducing pressure drops, and eliminating leaks. Unlike the performance of steel and copper, which degrades over time due to corrosion, Transair provides clean air quality with optimum flow rate performance.


Pipe Texture

Interior pipe texture determines "friction" and consequently line loss. Rough surfaces cause more turbulent air flow and more line loss. Transair utilizes smooth interior surfaces and specially-designed "full bore" fittings to propagate efficient laminar air flow.

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Features and Benefits

Environmentally Friendly


Incorporating Transair adds a recyclable component to your compressed air piping solution.

Recent trends reveal that the interest in and demand for green building designs, materials, and products has greatly increased and will only continue to do so in the coming years.

Parker understands this growing focus on sustainable buildings. As a result, the materials used to manufacture Transair pipe and fittings are 100% recyclable and meet the requirements set by the U.S. Green Building Council for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification credits.

Furthermore, Transair has been specifically designed to ensure a lower inpact on the environment with a low carbon footprint when compared to traditional piping systems.

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Features and Benefits

Low Installation Costs


The Solution to High Installation Costs

Transair compressed air pipe systems are quick to install and ready for immediate pressurization. No particular preparation (cutting, deburring, chamfering, etc.) is required.

Transair aluminum pipe is calibrated and fits perfectly with all Transair components. Each connection is automatically secured and the seal is optimized. Components are removable and interchangeable and allow immediate and easy layout modifications. All components incorporate quick assembly connection that enables Transair systems to be assembled much more quickly than galvanized steel or copper systems.

Example:

  • Galvanized installation: 6 feet per hour
  • Copper installation: 8 feet per hour
  • Transair installation: 45 feet per hour

All modifications and extensions to Transair systems can be done extremely quickly and will meet your production requirements.

Example:

  • Lateral dismantling of pipe: 1 minute, 30 seconds
  • Drilling of pipe: 2 minutes, 30 seconds
  • Mounting brackets: 45 seconds
  • Remounting of pipe to the system: 1 minute, 30 seconds

Transair also offers significant savings on installation, maintenance and operating costs compared to traditional pipe. The quick, instant connections eliminate the need to thread, solder or glue pipe. Labor accounts for only 20% of the cost of installing Transair, while labor accounts for 50-80% of the cost of installing steel or copper systems.

Labor contents for traditional pipe systems:

  • Black pipe (steel): 80%
  • Copper: 50-70%
  • Glued plastic: 40-70%

Quick installation, quick profit for contractors.
For a 3,000 foot piping job using 2" pipe:

  • Black pipe: 600 man-hours 8 men for 2 weeks
  • Transair: 100 man-hours 8 men for less than 2 days

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Features and Benefits

Comparison to Other Pipes


Black Iron and Copper Piping

For many years, copper and black iron have been the overwhelming favorite for plumbing compressed air systems. However, recent advances in materials technology have made thermoplastic pipe a safe and economical alternative to traditional materials. A big advantage of metal pipe, tubing, and fittings is that installers are familiar with them and the techniques for joining them. While black iron is inexpensive, installation is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Moreover, threaded joints often serve as a source of leakage. This leads to higher operating costs because compressors must operate overtime to compensate for the leakage. Although connections between copper pipe and fittings are less prone to leakage, copper components are more expensive, and installation, again, is labor-intensive - especially when large diameters are involved.

Photo of a section of a black iron compressed air system.

But these aren't the only drawbacks to metal piping systems. Interior corrosion can cause scaling and pitting on inside surfaces. As the corrosion products combine with moisture and other contaminants, they accumulate on the inner surfaces of the pipe and fittings, increasing their roughness. As the internal diameter becomes rougher, pressure drop throughout the system increases. This ends up costing money by reducing the efficiency of the compressed air system. More importantly, particles can dislodge and clog or damage end-of-line equipment.


PVC Piping

Because of the drawbacks of metal piping systems, compressed air system users have been seeking alternatives to traditional metal pipe and tubing. Over the past ten years, industrial plastics have been developed that present an attractive alternative to metal piping.

Photo of a ruptured PVC pipe.

PVC piping is relatively inexpensive, easy to install, lightweight, and corrosion resistant. However, PVC has one major drawback: it is brittle. An inadvertent impact could cause the piping to shatter, endangering surrounding personnel. Most PVC pipe manufacturers warn against using PVC for compressed air service due to potential liability from such failures. The Plastic Piping Institute, in their Recommendation B, states that plastic piping used for compressed air transport in above-ground systems should be protected in shatter-proof encasements, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

In many states, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) has stepped in and regulated against using brittle plastics such as PVC in these applications, and additional states are following suit.

The strictest standard in the country has been issued by California's OSHA. It includes five tests, as well as a requirement for comprehensive marking of the pipe and fittings. These tests include long-term hydrostatic, short-term burst, and three specialized impact tests — all to ensure the safety and ductility of the system. The impact tests include striking frozen, pressurized pipe with both blunt and sharp strikers, using various forces, and striking a frozen pipe with a hemispherical striker, using various forces. Manufacturers are required to present the results of these tests for review upon request. When specifying a thermoplastic system, for safety's sake it is important that your supplier meets Cal-OSHA regulations, regardless of the state in which the system will be installed.

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Features and Benefits

Flexibility and Modularity


Transair Pipe Provides True System Flexibility

Average pipe layout lifetime: 1.5 years

Modifications to a compressed air piping system (adding drops) can be expensive, time-consuming, and counterproductive to profit margins due to production downtime and overtime labor costs.

A new Transair Pipe System increases the ease of modification. Drops can be installed in 5 minutes instead of 2 hours.

System Modifications

  • Easy addition of drops
  • Easy extension of existing system
  • Easy disassembly and relocation
  • Reusable components

Unlike traditional pipe systems, Transair is not necessarily a permanent plant fixture. You can disassemble and take the system with you when you relocate.

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Features and Benefits

SCOUT Monitoring


High-Tech Monitoring Solutions For Your Transair Pipe System

When it comes to getting the most out of your compressed air piping system, every bit of energy used by the compressor to meet your needs is precious. However, discovering inefficiencies without an auditor can be nearly impossible, and some problems in your system may be catastrophic if not caught early on.

Parker's SCOUT monitoring system for Transair aluminum pipe allows you to keep track of the effectiveness of your compressed air network. Installing specialized sensors in your system for pressure, humidity, temperature, power consumption, and flow rate measurement allows information about your system to be continuously collected and transmitted to a server. These data can then be accessed through an easy-to-use online portal. If something in your system goes wrong, you will be alerted through text or email as soon as it happens.

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Technical Information

Transair Product Specifications


Drag your finger across the table to scroll

Fluids Compressed air (dry, wet, lubricated)

Vacuum

Inert gases
Maximum working pressure 188 psi from -4°F to +140°F

232 psi from -4°F to +115°F
Vacuum level 98.7% (29.6" Hg)
Working temperature From -4°F to +140°F
Storage temperature From -40°F to +176°F
Resistance to Corrosion

Mineral compressor oils

Aggressive environments

Synthetic compressor oils

Mechanical shocks

Thermal variations

Compressor oil carryover
Environment Materials are 100% recyclable

Transair pipe, fittings and valves are guaranteed silicone-free
Aluminum pipe Aluminum pipe: 6063-T5

No pipe scale

Provides clean air

Laminar air flow: low pressure drop

Extremely lightweight (12 lbs for a 20' stick of 2-1/2" pipe)

Lighter load to balance on high lift

Safer to install
Fittings 40 mm (1-1/2"), 25 mm (1"), 16.5 mm (1/2"): Polyamide 6.6 with fiberglass reinforcement. 50 mm (2") and 63 mm (2-1/2") brackets also polyamide.

50mm (2") and 63 mm (2-1/2"): Aluminum (AlSi9Cu3)

Connection will withstand 4200 lbs of force

Force to connect: less than 30 lbs

Tightening torque: 260 in-lbs

Seals: Nitrile 70 DIDC

Silicone-free

Traceability: All products identified by production number
Low leak rate Transair is manufactured to a leak rate spec of less than 0.0006 SCFM leakage per connection. This corresponds to less than 0.75 SCFM leakage over an entire mile of pipe.

Each Transair 63mm connection has leak rate lower than 0.00003 SCFM (good to 5 connections).

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Installation Guides

16.5mm to 40mm


Video


Pipe Preparation

Diagram showing how to use a pipe cutter to cut Transair aluminum pipe.

Use the pipe cutting tool to cut the pipe to length (maximum allowable offset from perpendicular: 7°).

Diagram showing how to use a chamfering tool to chamfer a 1/2 inch (16.5 milimeter), 1 inch (25 milimeter), or 1-1/2 inch (40 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Chamfer the cut end.

Diagram showing how to use the deburring tool to deburr a Tranair aluminum pipe.

Deburr and clean the cut end.

Diagram showing the steps for using the marking tool to mark the insertion point on 1/2 inch (16.6 milimeter), 1 inch (25 milimeter), or 1-1/2 inch (40 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Place the size-appropriate groove of the marking tool onto the pipe. Mark the pipe using a permanent marker.


Connection

Diagram showing the first step to assemble Transair aluminum pipe with a push-to-connect union.

Insert the marked end of the pipe into the union. DO NOT tighten or loosen the nut - the unions come pre-aligned by the factory for optimum sealing.

Diagram showing the second step to assemble Transair aluminum pipe with a push-to-connect union.

Insert the pipe until it stops, aligned with the mark. It is now ready for pressurization.

Diagram showing the correct alignment of the tightening nuts for Transair aluminum pipe push-to-connect unions.

The tightening mark arrows should arrive correctly aligned.

Disconnection

Diagram showing the first step to disassemble Transair aluminum pipe with a push-to-connect union.

Unscrew the nut half a turn.

Diagram showing the second step to disassemble Transair aluminum pipe with a push-to-connect union.

Remove the pipe.


Fixing Clip Spacing

Diagram showing the appropriate distance for space between fixing clips for 1/2 inch (16.5 milimeter), 1 inch (25 milimeter), or 1-1/2 inch (40 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Drag your finger across the table to scroll

Ø L (m) Dmax (m)
16.5 3 1.5
25 3 1.5
25 6 3
40 3 1.5
40 6 3

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Installation Guides

50mm and 63mm


Video


Pipe Preparation

Diagram showing the use of a pipe cutter to cut Transair aluminum pipe.

Cut pipe to length (if necessary) using a Transair pipe cutter (maximum allowable offset from perpendictular: 7°).

Diagram showing the use of a file to bevel the outer lip of a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Use a file to chamfer the inner and outer edges.

Diagram showing the use of a deburring tool to deburr a Transair aluminum pipe.

Deburr and clean the pipe.

Diagram showing the proper insertion of a Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) pipe into a Transair drilling jig.

Insert cut end of pipe into drilling jig until the distance between the end of the pipe and the center of the drilling holes is 30 mm. Lock the drilling jig onto the pipe.

Diagram showing the proper procedure for drilling coupling holes into a Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) pipe.

Secure the drilling jig (preferably in a vice) and use the proper drilling tool to drill one hole in each side of the pipe.

Diagram showing the use of a Transair deburring tool to deburr a drilled hole in a Transair aluminum pipe.

Clean and deburr the holes.


Connection

Diagram showing a nut from a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) union sliding onto a Transair aluminum pipe.

Unscrew the nuts from the union and slide one of them onto the pipe.

Diagram showing a double clamp ring being placed on a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Open the double clamp ring and slide it onto the pipe, closing it onto the drilled holes.

Photo illustrating the new Transair SnapRing on a piece of 2 inch (50 milimeter) pipe.

NOTE: 2" (50mm) and 2-1/2" (63mm) may use the SnapRing instead of the double clamp ring. Insert it around the side of the pipe as shown.

Diagram showing the insertion of the end of a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe into the Transair union body.

Insert the end of the pipe into the union body.

Diagram showing the hand tightening of the nut of a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair union onto the union body.

Hand tighten the nut onto the union body.

Diagram showing a length of Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe with both ends ready for coupling.

When joining two sections of pipe, one end must have the nut, clamp ring, and body already attached, while the other must have only the nut and clamp ring.

Diagram showing the joining of two sections of Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe by hand.

Join the sections of pipe and hand tighten the second nut to the union body.

Diagram showing the use of spanner wrenches for the final tightening of a Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe union.

Use the spanner wrenches to give each nut a final tightening of a quarter turn. The pipe is now secure and ready for pressurization.


Disconnection

Diagram showing the unscrewing of a nut from a connected Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe union.

Loosen and completely unscrew the nuts.

Diagram showing the sliding back of an unscrewed nut from a Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe union.

Slide the nut away from the union body.

Diagram showing the removal of the double clamp ring from a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Open the double clamp ring and slide it away from the union, toward the loosened nut.

Diagram showing the loosening and removal of a Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe union.

Slide the loosened union toward the nut and double clamp ring, onto the pipe to be removed from the line.

Diagram showing the removal of a section of Transair 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) aluminum pipe from a compressed air line.

Once the unions on both ends have been dismantled, remove the section of pipe. Afterwards, replace the fittings as needed to reinstall a different pipe configuration to the same existing ends in the line.


Fixing Clip Spacing

Diagram showing the necessary dimensions for properly spacing fixing clips on a length of 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

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Ø L (m) Dmax (m)
50 3 2.5
50 6 4
63 3 2.5
63 6 4

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Installation Guides

76mm to 168mm


Video


Pipe Preparation

Diagram showing the use of a cutting tool to cut 3 inch (76 milimeter), 4 inch (100 milimeter), or 6 inch (168 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe to length.

If necessary, cut to length with cutting tool. Maximum allowable length disparity from perpendicular: 1.5 mm.

Diagram showing the use of a file to bevel the outer lip of a 2 inch (50 milimeter) or 2-1/2 inch (63 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

Use a file to chamfer the inner and outer edges.

Diagram showing the use of a deburring tool to deburr Transair aluminum pipe.

Deburr the edges.

Photo showing how open the retaining pin of the portable tool.

On the portable tool, press the jaw release button and open the retaining pin.

Photo showing how to place crimping jaws into the portable tool.

Place the appropriately-sized jaws into the portable tool.

Photo showing how to close the retaining pin to secure the jaws into the portable tool.

Close the retaining pin to secure the jaws in the portable tool.

Photo showing how to open the jaws of the portable tool and place them on the pipe.

Manually open the portable tool jaws (by squeezing together the rear part of the jaws, behind the retaining pin) and insert the pipe into the jaws as far as it will go.

Photo showing how to close the jaws onto the pipe and crimp it.

Release the jaws and squeeze the trigger to crimp the pipe until you hear a 'snap' sound.

Photo showing how to reopen the jaws and rotate the pipe.

Manually reopen the jaws and rotate the pipe slightly to crimp the next lug, careful not to overlap any lugs you have already made.

Photo showing the repetition of the last three steps.

Repeat until the pipe has the required number of lugs for its diameter.

Diagram showing the arrangement of 6 lugs around a 3 inch (76 milimeter) pipe.

Use 6 lugs for 3" (76mm) pipe.

Diagram showing the arrangement of 7 lugs around a 4 inch (100 milimeter) pipe.

Use 7 lugs for 4" (100mm) pipe.

Diagram showing the arrangement of 10 lugs around a 6 inch (168 milimeter) pipe.

Use 10 lugs for 6" (168mm) pipe.

Diagram showing incorrect overlapping lugs.

Do NOT overlap lugs.


Connection

Photo of a cartridge in good condition, ready for installation.

Example of a good cartridge, ready for installation.

Photo of a bad cartridge, which would not properly seal.

Example of a bad cartridge. Note the loose seal.

Diagram showing how to slide a cartridge onto the end of a pipe with lugs.

Fully slide the cartridge onto the end of the first pipe.

Diagram showing how to insert the second pipe into the cartridge.

Fully insert the end of the second pipe into the cartridge.

Diagram showing how to place the pipes and cartridge into the clamp.

Place the joined pipes into the clamp and close the clamp around them.

Diagram showing how to partially secure the clamp using an Allen key.

Use an Allen key to hand-tighten the screws. NOTE: For best seal, alternate the tightening diagonally as shown.

Diagram showing how to pull the pipes apart to engage the seal.

Pull the pipes fully outward.

Diagram showing how to use a power tool to fully tighten the clamp.

Fully tighten the clamp. NOTE: For best seal, alternate the tightening diagonally as shown.

Diagram showing that any gap present on either side of the clamp must be equal.

Any gap present on either side of the clamp must be equal.


Disconnection

Diagram showing how to loosen the screws disassemble the clamp and cartridge union.

Loosen the screws to disconnect the union.


Fixing Clip Spacing

Diagram showing the proper spacing for fixing clips for 3 inch (76 milimeter), 4 inch (100 milimeter), or 6 inch (168 milimeter) Transair aluminum pipe.

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Ø L (m) Dmax (m)
76 3 2.5
76 6 5
100 3 2.5
100 6 5
168 3 1.5
168 6 2.5

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Installation Guides

Flexible Hose


Minimum Bend Radii

Diagram showing the minimum bend radius of a Transair flexible hose in a level change situation.

Level change configuration.

Diagram showing the minimum bend radius of a Transair flexible hose in an obstacle bypass situation.

Obstacle bypass configuration.

Diagram showing the minimum bend radius of a Transair flexible hose in an expansion loop situation.

Expansion loop configuration.


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Ø (mm) Length (in) Part # Rmini (in)
25 22 1001E25 00 01 4
25 59 1001E25 00 03 4
25 79 1001E25 00 04 4
25 22 1001E25V00 01* 3
25 59 1001E25V00 03* 3
25 79 1001E25V00 04* 3
40 45 1001E40 00 02 16
40 79 1001E40 00 04 16
40 118 1001E40 00 05 16
40 37 1001E40V00 07* 6
40 79 1001E40V00 04* 6
40 118 1001E40V00 05* 6
63 55 1001E63 00 08 12
63 118 1001E63 00 05 26
63 157 1001E63 00 06 26
63 118 1001E63V00 05* 10
63 157 1001E63V00 06* 10
76 59 FP01 L1 01 14
76 79 FP01 L1 02 14
100 79 FP01 L3 01 18
100 118 FP01 L3 03 18

* For vacuum applications.


Safety

Photo of a Transair anti-whiplash safety strap for flexible hose connections.

In order to avoid the risk of whiplash accidents, Parker recommends the use of anti-whiplash straps (part # 6698 99 03), which are placed on either side of the connection. If Transair flexible hose is exposed to tear, the anti-whiplash assembly prevents it from snaking (safety device in accordance with ISO 4414 standard).


Correct Usage

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Correct Usage
Face of Approval
Incorrect Usage
Face of Disapproval
Diagram showing a securely tightened anti-whiplash strap around both sides of a flexible hose connection.
Do tightly secure the anti-whiplash strap on either end of the flexible hose connection.
Diagram showing a loose, insecure connection of an anti-whiplash strap.
Don't leave the anti-whiplash strap loosely connected. In the event of a failure, the hose will still slip free and whip around.
Diagram showing a flexible hose used to bend upward and back downward, presumably around an obstacle.
Do use a flexible hose for applications that require flexibility, such as bending around obstacles.
Diagram showing a flexible hose being used in a straight line in a connection.
Don't use a flexible hose for a straight line pathway. Use a rigid pipe instead.
Diagram showing a flexible hose with its longitudinal marking line on the same side of the hose all the way down.
Do ensure that the marking line is on the same side of the hose for its entire length.
Diagram showing a flexible hose twisted in such a way that its marking line twists around to the other side.
Don't twist the hose, as this puts undue stress on it. The marking line will tell you if it is twisted or not.
Diagram showing a flexible hose connecting two fittings in a smoothly curved arc.
Do arrange the flexible hose to fit between the fittings as a smoothly curved arc.
Diagram showing a flexible hose forced to bend at 90 degree angles in a rectangular shape.
Don't force the hose to bend at angles. This puts unnecessary stress on the flexible hose and may damage it.
Diagram showing a flexible hose dropping vertically downward from a 90 degree elbow connected to a horizontal pipe.
Do use a 90° elbow for sudden drops.
Diagram showing a flexible hose connected to a horizontal pipe by means of a regular coupling before dropping downward.
Don't use a pipe-to-pipe connector for sudden drops. The weight of the flexible hose on the connection may cause damage.
Diagram showing a hose from secured to a support structure by an anti-whiplash strap.
Do use an anti-whiplash strap to secure a flexible hose to a support structure, if securing it to the other side of the connection is not feasible.
Diagram showing an unsecured flexible hose connection.
Don't leave any flexible hose connections unsecured.

Ø 16.5 — Ø 40 Connection

Using a Male Threaded Fitting

Diagram showing how to loosen and remove the nut from a Transair stud fitting in preparation for connecting a flexible hose.

Loosen and remove the nut from the stud fitting.

Diagram showing how to join the flexible hose to the fitting.

Move the swaged end of the hose onto the exposed stud thread.

Diagram showing how to tighten the hose nut to connect the hose to the fitting.

Tighten the nut.

Using a Pipe-to-Pipe Connector

Diagram showing how to loosen and remove the nut from the Transair pipe-to-pipe connector in preparation for connection with a flexible hose.

Loosen and remove the nut from the connector.

Diagram showing how to join the hose nut onto the connector threads.

Move the swaged end of the hose onto the exposed connector thread.

Diagram showing how to tighten the hose onto the connector.

Tighten the nut.

Using a 90° Elbow

Diagram showing how to loosen and remove the nut from a Transair 90 degree elbow in preparation for connection with a flexible hose.

Loosen and remove the nut from the elbow.

Diagram showing how to join the hose nut onto the elbow threads.

Move the swaged end of the hose onto the elbow thread.

Diagram showing how to tighten the nut to secure the hose to the elbow.

Tighten the nut.


Ø 50 — Ø 63 Connection

Using a Male Threaded Fitting

Diagram showing how to loosen and disconnect the nut from a Transair stud connector and place the nut on the swaged end of a flexible hose.

Loosen and remove the nut from the stud connector. Slide the nut onto the swaged end of the hose.

Diagram showing how to place the connector clamps onto the hose.

Place the connector clamps onto the housing holes of the hose.

Diagram showing how to join the hose with the stud connector.

Move the nut to the end of the hose and connect to the stud threads.

Diagram showing how to tighten and secure the hose to the stud fitting.

Tighten using the spanner tools.

Using a Pipe-to-Pipe Connector

Diagram showing how to loosen and remove the nut from a Transair pipe-to-pipe connector and slide it onto a flexible hose.

Loosen and remove the nut from the connector. Slide it onto the swaged end of the flexible hose.

Diagram showing how to place the connector clamps onto the hose.

Place the connector clamps onto the housing holes of the hose.

Diagram showing how to join the hose with the connector.

Move the nut to the end of the hose and connect to the connector threads.

Diagram showing how to tighten and secure the hose to the connector.

Tighten using the spanner tools.

Using a 90° Elbow

Diagram showing how to loosen and remove the nut from a Transair 90 degree elbow and slide it onto a flexible hose.

Loosen and remove the nut from the elbow. Slide it onto the swaged end of the flexible hose.

Diagram showing how to place the connector clamps onto the hose.

Place the connector clamps onto the housing holes of the hose.

Diagram showing how to join the hose with the elbow.

Move the nut to the end of the hose and connect to the elbow threads.

Diagram showing how to tightne and secure the hose to the elbow.

Tighten using the spanner tools.


Ø 76 — Ø 168 Connection

Diagram showing how to place a cartridge onto the end of a Transair large bore aluminum pipe with lugs.

Fully slide the cartridge onto the end of the pipe, up to the lugs.

Diagram showing how to slide the end of a large bore flexible hose into a coupling cartridge.

Slide the end of the hose all the way into the cartridge.

Diagram showing how to place the pipe, hose, and cartridge into a coupling clamp.

Place the pipe, cartridge, and hose assembly into the coupling clamp.

Diagram showing how to hand tighten the clamp with an Allen key.

Hand tighten the clamp screws with an Allen key. NOTE: For best seal, alternate the tightening diagonally across the clamp.

Diagram showing how to pull the hose and pipe apart to secure the cartridge seal.

Pull the pipe and hose all the way apart within the clamp.

Diagram showing how to fully tighten the clamp screws with a power tool.

Fully tighten the clamp screws. NOTE: For best seal, alternate the tightening diagonally across the clamp.

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Installation Guides

Pressurized System Brackets


Labeled photo of a Transair pressurized system drilling tool.

Photo showing the initial fit of the pressurized system bracket on a Transair aluminum pipe.

Position the pressurized system bracket and fully tighten the two screws.

Photo showing the addition of the assembly to the pressurized system bracket.

Screw the assembly onto the ball valve and ensure that the valve is open.

Photo showing the connection of the drilling tool to the assembly and valve.

Screw the drililng tool onto the ball valve until complete.

Photo showing the removal of the drilling tool and the closing of the ball valve.

Remove the drill and immediately close the ball valve. Dismantle the drilling tool.

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Pipe Sizing

Sizing Chart


Sizing Your Compressed Air System

Any compressed air system must be controlled, regulated, and sized to ensure that an adequate volume of air, at a pressure and purity necessary to satisfy user requirements, is delivered to the most remote outlet during the period of heaviest anticipated use. Some safety factor must be also incorporated into the system to accommodate additional pressure drop for some period of extremely high use if appropriate for the facility.


Design Sequence

  1. Locate and identify each process, workstation, or piece of equipment using compressed air.
  2. Determine volume of air used at each location.
  3. Determine pressure range required at each location.
  4. Determine conditioning requirements for each item.
  5. Establish how much time the individual tool or process will be in actual use for a specific period of time (duty cycle).
  6. Establish the maximum number of locations that may be used simultaneously on each branch, main, and for the project as a whole (use factor).
  7. Establish the extent of allowable leakage.
  8. Establish any allowance for future expansion.
  9. Make a preliminary piping layout and assign preliminary pressure drop.
  10. Select the air compressor type, conditioning equipment, and air inlet locations making sure that consistent SCFM or ACFM is used for both the system and compressor capacity rating.
  11. Produce a final piping layout and size the piping network

Piping System Design

Piping layout on the plans shall be reasonably complete, with checking for space, clearances, interference, and equipment drops. In order to use pressure drop tables, it is necessary to find the equivalent length of run from the compressor to the farthest point in the piping system. The reason for this is that the various pipe-sizing tables are developed for a pressure drop using friction loss for a given length of pipe.

  1. Measuring the actual length is the first step. In addition, the affects of the fittings must be considered.
  2. Determine the actual pressure drop that will occur only in the piping system. Generally accepted practice is to allow 10% of the proposed system pressure for pipe friction loss. It is a good practice to oversize distribution mains to allow for future growth as well as the addition of conditioning equipment.
  3. Size the piping using the appropriate charts, having calculated the SCFM and the allowable friction loss in each section of the piping being sized.
  4. The temperature used to calculate the friction loss is 60°F (16°C).

Chart

Select the Transair diameter for your application based on required flow against pressure drop. Estimated values for: a closed loop network, a pressure of 115 psi with 5% pressure drop.

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Flow Rate System Length Compressor
(hp)
164ft 328ft 492ft 984ft 1640ft 2460ft 3280ft 4265ft 5249ft 6561ft
Nm3/h Nl/min cfm 50m 100m 150m 300m 500m 750m 1000m 1300m 1600m 2000m
10 167 6 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 25 25 25 2 - 10
30 500 18 16.5 16.5 16.5 25 25 25 25 25 25 40
50 833 29 16.5 25 25 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 10
70 1167 41 25 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 40 40 10 - 40
100 1667 59 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 40 40 63
150 2500 88 25 40 40 40 40 40 40 63 63 63
250 4167 147 40 40 40 40 63 63 63 63 63 63
350 5833 206 40 40 40 63 63 63 63 63 63 76 40
500 8333 294 40 40 63 63 63 63 63 76 76 76 40 - 100
750 12500 441 40 63 63 63 63 76 76 76 76 100
1000 16667 589 63 63 63 63 63 76 76 100 100 100 100
1250 20833 736 63 63 63 63 63 100 100 100 100 100 100 - 425
1500 25000 883 63 63 63 76 76 100 100 100 100 100*
1750 29167 1030 63 63 76 76 76 100 100 100 100* 100*
2000 33333 1177 63 76 76 76 100 100 100 100* 100* 100*
2500 41667 1471 63 76 76 76 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*
3000 50000 1766 76 76 76 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*
3500 58333 2060 76 76 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 425
4000 66667 2354 76 100 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* > 425
4500 75000 2649 76 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*
5000 83333 2943 76 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*
5500 91667 3237 100 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*
6000 100000 3531 100 100 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*

* Pressure drop >5%

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Pipe Sizing

Sizing Widget


While the above chart contains useful information, it can be a bit convoluted and tricky to access. We at mdi have developed an interactive version of the chart. Simply select the parameters for your desired system and you will be given the appropriate pipe diameter.

Flow Calculator

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